The Federated States of Antarctica is a highly-ambitious micronation proposed on the Antarctic continent. It is currently comprised of seven states, a federal district, and also claims a seamount chain in the South Atlantic Ocean for a possible seasteading project. The country claims dozens of small enclaves in optimal ice-free areas throughout the coastal regions of Antarctica. The total formally-claimed land area is 15,017 square miles (slightly larger than Bhutan), despite maps which usually show the country as occupying the entire continent.
A constitution was drafted by founder and Provisional President David Powell on January 25, 12009, modeled almost entirely after the constitution of the State of Alaska, where Powell currently resides. The constitution will be fully active when there is sufficient citizenship to form a complete government. An interim constitution has yet to be drafted, but is planned.
The Federation is intended to be a nation of disenfranchised world citizens with a liberal world view on issues such as environmental conscience, equality, and promoting unity among mankind. The project began in 12004 as the Imperial Realm of Stonewall, which was intended to be a homeland for gays and lesbians around the world. Since then, the vision has grown and now seeks to be a separatist nation for those who subscribe to a variety of liberal and progressive world views. The defeat of a plan for universal health care in the United States by lobbyists and the lawmakers who are financially tied to them has underscored the need for a new country movement that will create a libertarian socialist nation.
Politics and Government
The Federated States are to be a republic. A president shall be elected every four years by popular vote and may serve no more than two consecutive terms. The Antarctic Senate shall consist of 100 members: two from each state that represent the entire state at large and the remainder apportioned according to population. The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court and a system of Federal circuit courts. According to the Constitution, all elections are to be non-partisan in nature.
The Federation constitution calls for a federal system, a separation of powers, and a system of checks and balances between the three branches of government. It also includes an extensive Bill of Rights, which guarantees the free exercise of speech, press, assembly, petition, and religion. The Federated States shall officially be an atheist nation, which allows for all religions to exist with neither the blessing nor intervention of the government. Citizens shall also enjoy the right to bear arms, as well as trial rights similar to those in the United States Bill of Rights.
Revenue shall come primarily from sales taxes, gambling revenue, and taxes on marijuana, alcohol, and prostitution. It is expected that its cities will provide goods and services to tourists and researchers. Therefore, its tax base will consist of the entire continent rather than being limited to the enclaves which make up its sovereign territory. The Federated States shall have a universal health care system.
The Antarctic Treaty, established in 11959, is to be adhered to as long as it is in force. The Federated States does not recognize the territorial claims that exist on the continent. Officially, the country shall be made up of seven small enclaves that it claims as its sovereign territory. However, any location south of the 60th parallel that is not currently occupied nor claimed by other nations it recognizes remains a potential site for a new enclave. The official map of the Federated States of Antarctica shows the Antarctic continent divided into seven states, even though the Federated States does not claim territorial sovereignty over the entire continent.
The Federated States shall have the strictest environmental regulations on the planet. Fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources shall be strictly controlled. Antarctica's communities shall be powered by wind and solar power and heated geothermally. All waste shall be recycled. No non-native vegetation or animal species shall be allowed outside of enclosed buildings.
The Federated States shall not have a military, in keeping with the tradition that the continent is not to be used for military purposes. However, each citizen over the age of 18 shall be considered a member of the national militia that has the potential to be transformed into an organized military should the country's security or sovereignty be threatened.
Like all nations that operate on the Antarctic continent, the Federated States shall assume full jurisdiction of its citizens in all locations south of the 60th parallel. Additionally, it shall have jurisdiction over all of its facilities and personnel outside of established enclaves.
The official currency shall be the Antarctic Dollar ($AAD).
There are 24 time zones that cover the Antarctic continent. Each time zone is named according to the phonetic alphabet, with a couple of exceptions. UTC is referred to as Zulu. Magellan observes Papa Time Zone (UTC-3). Shackleton observes Alpha Time Zone (UTC+1). Amery observes Echo Time Zone (UTC+5). Terra Nova and McMurdo City observe McMurdo Time Zone (UTC+12). Three zones represented by the traditional phonetic alphabet (India, Lima, Quebec) have been renamed (Ivan, Liberty, Quincy) to avoid geographic confusion.
The Federated States will use the Imperial (English customary) system for weights and measures, making it the only country besides the United States to do so.
The first draft of the Federation constitution has been completed. Using the constitution of the U.S. state of Alaska as its basis, it also includes several provisions based on the United States federal constitution as well. Key provisions include:
- A unicameral legislature called a Senate that consists of 100 members: two for each state to serve at large, one to represent the Capital District, one to represents citizens living abroad, and the remainder to be delegated to each state and apportioned according to population.
- 50 senators are elected every two years and serve a four-year term.
- An executive branch that consists of the President, Vice-President, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Attorney General. All are elected positions chosen by direct popular vote every four years.
- Equal rights are guaranteed without regard to race, creed, sex, color, nationality, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.
- An explicitly-worded section that guarantees freedom of religion and declares a separation of church and state.
- Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed in a more robust wording than in the United States Constitution.
- The Right to bear arms is guaranteed.
- Marriage is defined as a union between two consenting adults.
- The death penalty is abolished and extradition to countries where a person may face cruel, unusual, or capital punishment is prohibited.
- Personal income taxes are prohibited.
- English is the official language.
- Provision for universal health care.
- A certain percentage of federal revenue is to be placed into a permanent fund, which can be used to protect against inflation, as well as pay out dividends to every citizen.
- Initiative, referendum, and recall can be used at the state and local level, as well as the federal level.
- Provision of a structure for state and local government that prevents duplication of taxing jurisdiction and authority wherever possible.
- Prevents citizenship from being involuntarily revoked.
The Federated States has not yet established any international relations with existing macronations, although it intends to make its territorial claims known to them. Currently, the Federation has established diplomatic ties with other micronations on the Antarctic continent, specifically the Kingdom of Finismund and the Grand Duchy of Flandrensis. The Federation has joined these two countries in opposing and refusing to recognize territorial claims made by the micronation of Westarctica.
Calendar System, Date and Time notations
The Federated States has discontinued the use of the Gregorian BC/AD year-numbering system in favor of the Holocene-era system, on the grounds that using a calendar epoch based on the birth of Christ is a violation of the separation of church and state.
The key difference between the Holocene system and the Gregorian system is that the epoch of the Holocene calendar is set exactly 10,000 years before the Gregorian year 1 B.C. Therefore, according to the Holocene calendar, the founding date of the Federation is January 25, 12009 HE.
For purposes of business, government, communications, science, and particularly transportation, the 24-hour time format (e.g. "15:00") is preferred. In the media and in casual conversation, the 12-hour time format (e.g. "three o'clock" or "three in the afternoon") is used instead. Despite this difference, it's generally understood that "18:45" is the same as "quarter to seven". Date notations will follow the standard U.S. format of month-day-year (e.g. "12/31/12009", "December 31, 12009").
States and territories
- Main article: States of the Federated States of Antarctica
The Federated States of Antarctica formed on January 25, 12009, and established seven states and one federal city as part of a federation. At the formation, the seven states were East Antarctica, New Schwabenland, North Antarctica, Palmer Land, South Antarctica, Victoria Land, and West Antarctica; and with Terra Nova being its own federal city. On September 27, 12009, New Schwabenland was renamed New Swabia, North Antarctica was renamed Alyeska, South Antarctica was renamed Polaria, and West Antarctica was renamed Amundsen; and on May 25, 12010, East Antarctica was renamed Bellinsgauzenia.
The Antarctic continent is a rugged and empty land of ice and snow, occasionally interrupted by rock outcroppings. It is in these areas that a majority of the scientific research facilities exist. A dozen or so rock "oases" are the proposed sites of Antarctica's settlements.
The Federation's formal territorial boundaries cover only the land occupied by its settlements, which cover a total area roughly the size of the U.S. state of New Jersey. As there are no large ice-covered areas claimed by the Federation, its claims are intended to be entirely urban environments.
Antarctica's economy is expected to revolve around tourism and services. Gambling, prostitution, and marijuana are to be legal in all parts of the country and therefore expected to account for a considerable portion of the nation's revenue. Ecotourism is expected to be a large part of the economy, as are goods and services provided to existing scientific research facilities.
Antarctica is further envisioned as a country that will attract businesses and industries that would be illegal in most countries, such as drug companies that produce generic pharmaceuticals in violation of patents. This will also create a health care tourism industry for people suffering from diseases such as AIDS, which in many parts of the world, are too expensive to treat.
Antarctica has historically been set aside for the purpose of scientific research. The Federated States will continue in that tradition. Science that is prohibited in most parts of the world, such as research on human cloning, will be legal in Antarctica.
Antarctica, being a new country, has yet to develop a distinct culture. However, people with liberal, socialist, or otherwise progressive leanings are highly encouraged and invited to become citizens.
|January 27||Discovery Day||A day to celebrate the discovery of Antarctica in 11820. The day is also the formal celebration of the formation of the Federated States (which formed on January 25). Celebrated much like Columbus Day.|
|March (1st Monday)||Labor Day||Holiday honoring labor, end of the summer season|
|May (4th Thursday)||Thanksgiving||Day for giving thanks, celebrated by a family feast, similar to common practice in the US and Canada|
|June 24||Yuletide||Celebrated like Christmas in the Northern Hemisphere, but without the religious significance|
|July 1||Antarctica Day||Patriotic holiday, most ideal for fireworks due to complete darkness in mid-winter|
|July (2nd Monday)||Peace Day||One of four holidays celebrating the ideals of the national motto|
|August (4th Monday)||Social Justice Day|
|September (3rd Monday)||Human Rights Day|
|October (4th Monday)||Equality Day|
|November (last Monday)||Memorial Day||Holiday honoring the dead, start of the summer season|
|December 25-January 1||Summer Holiday||Federal summer vacation|
Currently, the Federated States of Antarctica is an aspirant state. Its grandiose plans and ideas are intended to be a guide for future settlers. It is understood even by current citizens that the physical reality of the Federated States will likely look nothing like what is envisioned by its current founders. The ideals of a free, democratic, socialist society for the 121st Holocene Century will always remain, however.
- Micronationalism in Antarctica
Federated States of Antarctica
Amery | Amundsen City | Balleny | Darwin | Devonport | Ellsworth | Georgetown | Gottleib | Hillary | Hillcrest | Magellan | McMurdo City | Oazisgrad | Patuxent | Pensacola | Sagan | St. Anastasia | Shackleton | Terra Nova | Xue Long
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